Last edited by Malazuru
Saturday, February 1, 2020 | History

6 edition of Plows, plagues, and petroleum found in the catalog.

Plows, plagues, and petroleum

how humans took control of climate

by W. F. Ruddiman

  • 299 Want to read
  • 35 Currently reading

Published by Princeton University Press in Princeton, NJ .
Written in English

    Subjects:
  • Climatology,
  • Climatic changes,
  • Global temperature changes,
  • Greenhouse effect, Atmospheric

  • Edition Notes

    Includes bibliographical references and index.

    StatementWilliam H. Ruddiman.
    Classifications
    LC ClassificationsQC981 .R763 2005
    The Physical Object
    Paginationp. cm.
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL3311297M
    ISBN 100691121648
    LC Control Number2004062444

    Although widely accepted in its basic outline, Darwin's theory is still being challenged and enlarged by new insights. This revolution in understanding is not finished; the mechanisms that drive the motions of the plates remain unclear. Along the way he raises the fascinating possibility that plagues, by depleting human populations, also affected reforestation and thus climate--as suggested by dips in greenhouse gases when major pandemics have occurred. An interesting read, if tedious in spots.

    Slower but steadily accumulating changes had been underway for thousands of years, and the total effect of these earlier changes nearly matched the explosive industrial-era increases of the last century or two. From these and other explorations, the developing pattern of human history over the last 12, years has come into much sharper focus. Ruddiman claims that when this sources of natural fuels has been depleted, human kind will have to resort to using the large quantities of coal that still exist all over the planet. His disclaimer is a smoke screen for some dismissive arrogance.

    It distracts attention from an important Plows in gas concentrations that was occurring during the centuries before the s. Ruddiman certainly has lots of evidence to back it: climate records from glacial ice cores and lake-bottom sedimentary layers, computer models of climate change and information on very slight but significant eccentricities in Earth's orbit that effect overall climate and are responsible for cycles of glaciation. The book concludes by looking to the future and critiquing the impact of special interest money on the global warming debate. The result has been an unintended warming cycle that prevented the earth from entering into another ice age. Its oldest roots lie in field studies dating from the late s and explanatory hypotheses dating from the late s and early s.


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Plows, plagues, and petroleum book

He also mentions that given the modern, industrialized way of life with it's dependence on fossil fuels and material consumption, it is unlikely that enough people the world over would be willing to make the sacrifices necessary to have a significant impact on global warming.

Critical assessment[ edit ] Gavin Schmidta climate scientist at the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies in And petroleum book York, described Ruddiman's ideas as intriguing, but the conclusions largely depended on a comparison of methane changes in the current warm period with those in the Vostok ice core which correlated with orbital changes, and more recent research indicated that these might not be applicable to present changes.

Along the way he raises the fascinating possibility that plagues, by depleting human populations, also affected reforestation and Plows climate--as suggested by dips in greenhouse gases when major pandemics have occurred.

This long passage was marked by major growth in brain size; progressively greater use of stone tools for cutting, crushing, and digging; and later by control of fire. This more subtle change, happening at a much slower ratebut extending very far back in time, turns out to be comparably important in the story of humanity's effects on climate.

Ruddiman's textbook presents an overview of the record of early human effects on landscapes and climate, from the beginnings of agriculture development through to the Industrial Revolution, moving into present day. Glaciologists analyze how ice sheets flow.

For intervals lying in the much more distant past, tens or hundreds of millions of years ago, changes in global temperature, regional precipitation, and the size of Earth's ice sheets have been linked to plate-tectonic reorganizations of Earth's surface such as movements of continents, uplift and erosion of mountains and plateaus, and opening and closing of isthmus connections between continents.

Part 4 is intriguing. Studies of Earth's climatic history utilize any material that contains a record of past climate: deep-ocean cores collected from sea-going research vessels, ice cores drilled by fossil-fuel machine power in the Antarctic or Greenland ice sheets or by hand or solar power in mountain glaciers; soft-sediment cores hand-driven into lake muds; hand-augered drills that extract thin wood cores from trees; coral samples drilled from tropical reefs.

Geochemists can tell from the kind of carbon preserved in the teeth and bones of humans and other animals the mixture of plants and animals they ate.

Plows, Plagues, and Petroleum: How Humans Took Control of Climate

In the mid to high latitudes, global warming results and petroleum book milder winters, longer summers and better growing seasons goodbut in the topical and sub-tropical latitudes it means either more monsoons or more drought, depending on where you live bad, but the more money you make, the more you are able to mitigate these circumstances.

Plows, Plagues, and Petroleum is the first book to trace the full historical sweep of human interaction with Earth's climate. Within 3 or 4 years, the power of the plate tectonic theory to explain this wide range of data had convinced all but the usual handful of reflex contrarians that the theory was basically correct.

At this point, though we actually would have arrived at a better Plows of the what and how of weather and climate, forecasting climate on a scale measured in years would become what perhaps it currently is and will forever remain, little more than the occult reading of signs and auguries.

Was the crime the work of a family member, an outsider who Plows the family, or a complete stranger? What we tend to think of as "pre-impact" climate is actually not natural at all, but a result of pre-industrial humans efforts in agriculture.

It is a story of tortoise and hare. The "Ruddiman Hypothesis" will spark intense debate. Ruddiman uses estimates of population, forest cleared per person and carbon emitted per each square kilometer plagues to approximate the total impact and concludes that the magnitude is reasonably close to the extra carbon dioxide accumulated during the period.

More research was needed to quantify relevant factors. Over somewhat shorter intervals, cyclic changes in temperature, precipitation, and ice sheets over tens of thousands of years have been linked to subtle changes in Earth's orbit around the Sun, such as the tilt of its axis and the shape of the orbit.

Along the way he raises the fascinating possibility that plagues, by depleting human populations, also affected reforestation and thus climate--as suggested by dips in greenhouse gases when major pandemics have occurred.

Magicians use a form of misdirection in which flashy movements with one hand are used to divert attention from the other hand, the one slowly performing the magic trick. The author's credentials as an established climate scientist lend further weight to the theory. It is generally accepted by scientists that since the dawn of the industrial era about years ago human activity have been causing the Earth to be warmer than it would be otherwise.

It was very uncertain that the relatively small human populations and cultivated areas could have made a significant difference. The newer EPICA core showed only a small increase in methane during the last 5, years, which was generally attributed to the development of the boreal wetlands and major river deltas after the ice from the previous ice age melted and caused the sea level to rise to its current location.

William Ruddiman's provocative new book argues that humans have actually been changing the climate for some 8, years - as a result of the earlier discovery of agriculture.

Environments become more accessible and habitable to greater numbers of people to the degree that their climates trend toward the warm end of the hospitable temperature spectrum, and as the number of inhabitants increase, so do the CO2 emissions.

Skeptics will require much more sophisticated quantitative estimates of methane emissions, tied to estimates of areas under cultivation in each period and cultivation practices. This, according to Ruddiman, will result in a continued warming trend that will only stop when technology either produces a new source of fuel or figures out a way to separate the carbon dioxide emissions prior to being released into the atmosphere.

These conditions typically last for aboutyears and are followed by brief interglacial periods of more temperate weather.Aug 04,  · Plows, Plagues, and Petroleum: How Humans Took Control of Climate (Princeton Science Library Book 89) - Kindle edition by William F.

Ruddiman. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. Use features like bookmarks, note taking and highlighting while reading Plows, Plagues, and Petroleum: How Humans Took Control of Climate (Princeton Science /5(38).

Plows, Plagues, and Petroleum book. Read 23 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. The impact on climate from years of industrial de 4/5. Compre Plows, Plagues, and Petroleum: How Humans Took Control of Climate (Princeton Science Library Book 89) (English Edition) de William F.

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Plows, Plagues, and Petroleum

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I made the following changes. Get this from a library! Plows, plagues, and petroleum: how humans took control of climate. [W F Ruddiman] -- Did humankind's active involvement in climate change really begin with the industrial revolution, as is commonly believed?

While our massive use .